Pharmacotherapeutic group: Drugs used in diabetes, Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, ATC code: A10BH01.
Sitagliptin is a member of a class of oral anti-hyperglycaemic agents called dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. The improvement in glycaemic control observed with this medicinal product may be mediated by enhancing the levels of active incretin hormones. Incretin hormones, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), are released by the intestine throughout the day, and levels are increased in response to a meal. The incretins are part of an endogenous system involved in the physiologic regulation of glucose homeostasis.
When blood glucose concentrations are normal or elevated, GLP-1 and GIP increase insulin synthesis and release from pancreatic beta cells by intracellular signaling pathways involving cyclic AMP. Treatment with GLP-1 or with DPP-4 inhibitors in animal models of type 2 diabetes has been demonstrated to improve beta cell responsiveness to glucose and stimulate insulin biosynthesis and release. With higher insulin levels, tissue glucose uptake is enhanced. In addition, GLP-1 lowers glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells.
Decreased glucagon concentrations, along with higher insulin levels, lead to reduced hepatic glucose production, resulting in a decrease in blood glucose levels. The effects of GLP-1 and GIP are glucose-dependent such that when blood glucose concentrations are low, stimulation of insulin release and suppression of glucagon secretion by GLP-1 are not observed. For both GLP-1 and GIP, stimulation of insulin release is enhanced as glucose rises above normal concentrations.
Further, GLP-1 does not impair the normal glucagon response to hypoglycaemia. The activity of GLP-1 and GIP is limited by the DPP-4 enzyme, which rapidly hydrolyzes the incretin hormones to produce inactive products. Sitagliptin prevents the hydrolysis of incretin hormones by DPP-4, thereby increasing plasma concentrations of the active forms of GLP-1 and GIP. By enhancing active incretin levels, sitagliptin increases insulin release and decreases glucagon levels in a glucose-dependent manner.
For adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, sitagliptin 100mg is indicated to improve glycaemic control:
- In patients inadequately controlled by diet and exercise alone and for whom metformin is inappropriate due to contraindications or intolerance.
As dual oral therapy in combination with
- metformin when diet and exercise plus metformin alone do not provide adequate glycaemic control.
- a sulphonylurea when diet and exercise plus maximal tolerated dose of a sulphonylurea alone do not provide adequate glycaemic control and when metformin is inappropriate due to contraindications or intolerance.
- a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist (i.e. a thiazolidinedione) when use of a PPARγ agonist is appropriate and when diet and exercise plus the PPARγ agonist alone do not provide adequate glycaemic control.
As triple oral therapy in combination with
- a sulphonylurea and metformin when diet and exercise plus dual therapy with these medicinal products do not provide adequate glycaemic control.
- a PPARγ agonist and metformin when use of a PPARγ agonist is appropriate and when diet and exercise plus dual therapy with these medicinal products do not provide adequate glycaemic control.
Trevia is also indicated as add-on to insulin (with or without metformin) when diet and exercise plus stable dose of insulin do not provide adequate glycaemic control.
Posology and method of administration
The dose is 100 mg sitagliptin once daily. When used in combination with metformin and/or a PPARγ agonist, the dose of metformin and/or PPARγ agonist should be maintained, and Trevia administered concomitantly.
When Trevia is used in combination with a sulphonylurea or with insulin, a lower dose of the sulphonylurea or insulin may be considered to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia.
If a dose of Trevia is missed, it should be taken as soon as the patient remembers. A double dose should not be taken on the same day.
Hepatic impairment: No dose adjustment is necessary for patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment. sitagliptin 100mg has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment and care should be exercised.
However, because sitagliptin is primarily renally eliminated, severe hepatic impairment is not expected to affect the pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin.
Elderly: No dose adjustment is necessary based on age.
Paediatric population: The safety and efficacy of sitagliptin in children and adolescents under 18 years of age have not yet been established. No data are available.
Method of administration
Sitagliptin 100mg can be taken with or without food.
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients
Special warnings and precautions for use
General: Trevia should not be used in patients with type 1 diabetes or for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.
Acute pancreatitis: Use of DPP-4 inhibitors has been associated with a risk of developing acute pancreatitis. Patients should be informed of the characteristic symptom of acute pancreatitis: persistent, severe abdominal pain. Resolution of pancreatitis has been observed after discontinuation of sitagliptin (with or without supportive treatment), but very rare cases of necrotising or haemorrhagic pancreatitis and/or death have been reported. If pancreatitis is suspected, sitagliptin 100mg and other potentially suspect medicinal products should be discontinued; if acute pancreatitis is confirmed, sitagliptin 100 should not be restarted. Caution should be exercised in patients with a history of pancreatitis.
Hypoglycaemia when used in combination with other anti-hyperglycaemic medicinal products: In clinical trials of sitagliptin 100mg as monotherapy and as part of combination therapy with medicinal products not known to cause hypoglycaemia (i.e. metformin and/or a PPARγ agonist), rates of hypoglycaemia reported with sitagliptin were similar to rates in patients taking placebo. Hypoglycaemia has been observed when sitagliptin was used in combination with insulin or a sulphonylurea. Therefore, to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia, a lower dose of sulphonylurea or insulin may be considered.
Renal impairment: Sitagliptin is renally excreted. To achieve plasma concentrations of sitagliptin similar to those in patients with normal renal function, lower dosages are recommended in patients with GFR < 45 mL/min, as well as in ESRD patients requiring haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
When considering the use of sitagliptin in combination with another anti-diabetic medicinal product, its conditions for use in patients with renal impairment should be checked.
Hypersensitivity reactions: Post-marketing reports of serious hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with sitagliptin have been reported. These reactions include anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin conditions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Onset of these reactions occurred within the first 3 months after initiation of treatment, with some reports occurring after the first dose. If a hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, sitagliptin 100mg should be discontinued. Other potential causes for the event should be assessed, and alternative treatment for diabetes initiated.
Bullous pemphigoid: There have been post-marketing reports of bullous pemphigoid in patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors including sitagliptin. If bullous pemphigoid is suspected, Trevia should be discontinued.
Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Metformin: Co-administration of multiple twice-daily doses of 1,000 mg metformin with 50 mg sitagliptin did not meaningfully alter the pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Ciclosporin: A study was conducted to assess the effect of ciclosporin, a potent inhibitor of p-glycoprotein, on the pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin. Co-administration of a single 100 mg oral dose of sitagliptin and a single 600 mg oral dose of ciclosporin increased the AUC and Cmax of sitagliptin by approximately 29 % and 68 %, respectively. These changes in sitagliptin pharmacokinetics were not considered to be clinically meaningful.
Digoxin: Sitagliptin had a small effect on plasma digoxin concentrations. Following administration of 0.25 mg digoxin concomitantly with 100 mg of sitagliptin daily for 10 days, the plasma AUC of digoxin was increased on average by 11 %, and the plasma Cmax on average by 18 %. No dose adjustment of digoxin is recommended. However, patients at risk of digoxin toxicity should be monitored for this when sitagliptin and digoxin are administered concomitantly.
Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
Pregnancy: There are no adequate data from the use of sitagliptin in pregnant women. Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity at high doses (see section 5.3). The potential risk for humans is unknown. Due to lack of human data, sitagliptin 100mg should not be used during pregnancy.
Breast-feeding: It is unknown whether sitagliptin is excreted in human breast milk. Animal studies have shown excretion of sitagliptin in breast milk. Sitagliptin 100mg should not be used during breast-feeding.
Fertility: Animal data do not suggest an effect of treatment with sitagliptin on male and female fertility. Human data are lacking.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines
Sitagliptin has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines. However, when driving or using machines, it should be taken into account that dizziness and somnolence have been reported.
In addition, patients should be alerted to the risk of hypoglycaemia when Trevia is used in combination with a sulphonylurea or with insulin.
During controlled clinical trials in healthy subjects, single doses of up to 800 mg sitagliptin were administered. Minimal increases in QTc, not considered to be clinically relevant, were observed in one study at a dose of 800 mg sitagliptin. There is no experience with doses above 800 mg in clinical studies. In Phase I multiple-dose studies, there were no dose-related clinical adverse reactions observed with sitagliptin with doses of up to 600 mg per day for periods of up to 10 days and 400 mg per day for periods of up to 28 days.
In the event of an overdose, it is reasonable to employ the usual supportive measures, e.g., remove unabsorbed material from the gastrointestinal tract, employ clinical monitoring (including obtaining an electrocardiogram), and institute supportive therapy if required.
Sitagliptin is modestly dialysable. In clinical studies, approximately 13.5 % of the dose was removed over a 3- to 4-hour haemodialysis session. Prolonged haemodialysis may be considered if clinically appropriate. It is not known if sitagliptin is dialysable by peritoneal dialysis.